Health benefits of Clove | Syzigium aromaticum (L)

The essential clove oil is derived from the flower buds of Syzi­gium aromaticum(L.) belonging to the family Myrtaceae. Bet­ween its chemical components are ß-caryophyllene, which represents 14-21% of its compounds, 10-13% of tannins as well as phenols and sesquiterpenes. The most important component of the oil is phenylpropene, apart from eugenol, which is responsible for the characteristic scent of the plant and its main component. A 49 to 98% of the essential oil is contained in the flower buds. Clove (Laung) (Syzygium aromatium). Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) are an unopened flower bud from an Indonesian tree.

The essential clove oil is derived from the flower buds of Syzi­gium aromaticum(L.) belonging to the family Myrtaceae


Botanical Name- Eugenia caryophyllata, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Syzygium aromaticum

Common Name in Hindi - Laung

Common Name in English- Clove

Health Benefits of Organically Certified Clove

Clove is a natural antiviral, antimicrobial, antiseptic, and anti-fungal agent. It also holds aphrodisiac and circulation-stimulating capacities. The oil of cloves has been used in a variety of health conditions including indigestion, generalized stress, parasitic infestations, cough, toothaches, headache, and blood impurities. In fact, the expert panel German Commission recently approved the use of its essential oil as a topical antiseptic and anesthetic.

Dental Uses

Eugenol has pronounced anaesthetic property so when applied to a cavity in a decayed tooth, it relieves toothache. Rubbing of oil of cloves on sore gums and teeth help to ease pain. Eugenol depresses sensory receptors involved in pain perception by inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis. Eugenol also inhibits platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis.

TG neurons were classified into four types on the basis of their neurochemical and electrophysiological properties such as cell size, shapes of action potential (AP), isolectin-B(4) (IB(4)) binding, and were analyzed for the association of their distinctive electrophysiological properties and mRNA expression. It inhibits voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and activates of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). Subcutaneous injection of eugenol reduced the thermal nociception and capsaicin-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. Eugenol also diminished digastric electromyogram evoked by noxious electrical stimulation to tooth pulp.

At cellular level, eugenol reversibly inhibited APs and VGSCs in IB (4) +/TRPV1+/Na(v)1.8+ nociceptive TG neurons (Type I-Type III) and IB(4)-/TRPV1-/Na(v)1.8- nociceptive TG neurons (Type IV). Both TTX-resistant I (Na) in Type I-Type III neurons and TTX-sensitive I (Na) in Type IV neurons were sensitive to eugenol. So Eugenol can be served as local anesthetics for other pathological pain conditions in addition to its wide use in dental clinic.

Chewing of cloves diminishes bad breadth

The microorganisms which cause bad breath are chosen from the group consisting of: Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Treponema and Veillonella species. Eugenol acetate present in clove oil is used for inhibiting the growth of microorganisms which cause bad breath and combat bad breath. Eugenol acetate is 4 allyl-2-methoxyphenyl acetate. The clove oils with the highest content of eugenol acetate are the oils which are obtained from the flower buds and which typically contain 75 - 90 wt% eugenol, 4 - 15 wt% eugenol acetate and 5 - 12 wt% beta-caryophyllene

Antimicrobial activity

Antimicrobial properties of Syzygium aromaticum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils were tested against multidrug resistant isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus feacalis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus, and two controlled strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa-ATCC27853 and Staphylococcus aureus-ATCC29213, using agar well diffusion model. Both oils exhibited significant inhibition against tested strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.312-1.25% (v/v) for clove oil, and 0.312- 5% (v/v) for rosemary oil.

A comparative analysis was carried out to evaluate the antiseptic potential of clove extract (ethanolic) and clove oil against some food borne pathogens. Ten bacterial and seven fungal strains were tested using agar well diffusion method. Sodium propionate was used as a standard food preservative. Results revealed the greater antimicrobial effect of clove oil, when compared to extract and sodium propionate. In another study, clove oil was tested against five dermophytes including Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Maximum inhibitory effect (≈60%) against all fungal strains was shown at dose of 0.2mg/ml.

Antibacterial activity of six spices (clove, mint, cinnamon, ginger, mustard, and garlic) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus, using dilution, cup, and paper disc diffusion assays. Results revealed the maximum inhibitory action of clove, mustard, and cinnamon at 1% concentration. Garlic showed good inhibitory action at 3% concentration. However, mint and ginger had negligible inhibition at same concentration. Essential oils of Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Pelargonium graveolens, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against twenty five bacterial strains, including food borne, animal, and plant pathogens.considerable inhibitory action was observed by the volatile oils in a dose dependent behavior

Antiviral activity

Eugenin isolated from clove bud essential oil exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus at a dose of 10μg/ml.

Hepatoprotective activity

Hepatoprotective potential of clove aqueous extract was evaluated at doses of 0.1 and 0.2g/kg, using paracetamol intoxicated hepatic damage assay, in Wistar albino rats. The degree of hepatic damage was evaluated by increased levels of cytopalsmic enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). Clove extract restored the normal concentrations of enzymes in serum.

Analgesic activity

Eugenol was administrated intravenously and intragastrically to rabbits to examine its analgesic effect. Paracetamol was a standard drug. Eugenol showed greater fever reducing potential than paracetamol

Nausea

Clove tea has a very unique flavor and aroma. The best part of drinking clove tea is the quick relief from nausea and the fresh breath you have afterwards. In fact chewing on a clove from time is the best breath mint ever and keeps nausea and heartburn away. However too much tea or chewing on cloves can produce heartburn, especially if done on an empty stomach.

Hypertension

Regularly chewing on cloves for at least six weeks or more can help reduce hypertension. Always be sure to discuss this with your doctor before deciding if it is a right option for you.

Burns and Open Wounds

Apply clove oil directly and immediately to 1st and 2nd degree burns and minor open wounds and cuts to alleviate pain, reduce possibility of infection and reduce healing time. For minor open wounds and cuts just sprinkling ground cloves will help stop bleeding and reduce pain immediately. I never go anywhere without either a small bottle of ground cloves or clove oil.

Antiseptic Benefits of Cloves

Clove and clove oil are antiseptic in nature and work as an effective remedy for some common problems such as cuts, fungal infections, burns, wounds, athlete's foot and bruises. The antiseptic properties of clove oil are why it's a common ingredient in various dental creams, toothpastes, mouth wash, and throat sprays. Clove and clove oil boost the immune system by purifying the blood and help to fight against various diseases.

Anti-Inflammatory Benefits of Cloves

Chemical analysis shows that cloves have 36 different ingredients, the most important being an essential oil called eugenol. Cloves also contain a variety of flavonoids which contribute to clove's anti-inflammatory (and antioxidant) properties. Aromatherapists often use clove oil to treat the symptoms of rheumatism and arthritis. The aromatic clove oil, when inhaled, can help relieve certain respiratory conditions like coughs, colds, asthma, bronchitis and sinusitis.

Anesthetic activity

Anesthetic effect of eugenol was studied in Oncorhynchus mykiss (juvenile rainbow trout). Anesthesia induction and recovery times were compared with standard drug, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222). Eugenol induced anaesthesia at relatively lower concentration than standard drug. Moreover, the recovery time was 6-10 times longer for fishes exposed to eugenol than those exposed to same doses of tricaine methanesulfonate. Above study suggested the anesthetic use of clove oil derivative “Eugenol”

Cytotoxic activity

Anti-oxidant, genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of borneol and eugenol (clove oil derivative) were evaluated as the capability of modulating resistance against DNA damaging effects of H2O2, on different strains of human cells: malignan hepatome cells (HepG2), malignan colon cells (caco-2) and non malignan human fibroblast (VH10). Results revealed the remarkable anti-oxidative potential of eugenol at all the tested doses. It was also verified that the citotoxic potential of eugenol was more powerful than borneol. With regard to toxicity, eugenol exhibited strong DNA damaging effects on human fibroblast (VH10), medium damaging effects on colon cells (caco-2) and non genotoxic effects on hepatome cells (HepG2)

Cholera

The intake of cloves is very much effective in the treatment of cholera. Add some four grams of cloves to boiling water. Boil it, till the half water gets evaporated. Drink this water to prevent from severity.

Digestive disorder

Cloves boost the digestive system of the body as, it regulates the enzyme flows. Intake of this herb reduces the irritation level in intestine and cures indigestion problem. Mix the powdered cloves with teaspoonful of honey, and consume this mixture before going to bed.

Coughs

Take a clove with rock salt and chew it thoroughly to ease down soreness of throat. It also helps in reliving the inflammation of pharynx. You may even burn a clove and chew it, to get relieved from severe cough. Clove oil when mixed with honey, gives amazing effect of recurring cough.

Reference
Health benefits of Clove | Syzigium aromaticum (L) Health benefits of Clove | Syzigium aromaticum (L) Reviewed by gafacom on September 05, 2020 Rating: 5

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