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Cefixime | Cephalosporin Antibiotic

Indications:
Treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis), otitis media (due to Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes), pharyngitis and tonsillitis (due to Streptococcus pyogenes), acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae); uncomplicated cervical/urethral gonorrhea (due to N. gonorrhoeae [penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing.

Cephalosporins exert bactericidal activity by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis

Antibiotic Class: Third-Generation Cephalosporin




Antimicrobial Spectrum:

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible), Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin susceptible), Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli

Mechanism of Action:

Cephalosporins exert bactericidal activity by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and inhibiting cross-linking of the peptidoglycan. The cephalosporins are also thought to play a role in the activation of bacterical cell autolysins which may contribute to bacterial cell lysis.

Dosage:
PO: 400mg tablets; Suspension: 100mg/5mL
Adult dosing: 400 mg PO once a day or divided twice a day
Gonorrhea: 400 mg PO as one-time dose

Contraindications/Warnings/Precautions:
Precautions: hypersensitivity to penicillins, history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis, renal impairment

Drug Interactions:
Live Typhoid Vaccine - decreased immunological response to the typhoid vaccine

Pregnancy:
Category B: No evidence of risk in humans but studies inadequate.

Common side effect:
Diarrhea, Abdominal pain, nausea, dyspepsia, flatulence, loose stools.

Adverse Effects:
Hypersensitivity: Maculopapular rash, Urticaria, Pruritis, Anaphylaxis/angioedema, eosinophilia
Hematologic: Hypoprothrombinemia, Neutropenia, Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia
GI: Diarrhea, C. difficile disease
Renal: Interstitial nephritis



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