Glacial acetic acid occurs as a crystalline mass or a clear, colorless volatile solution with a pungent odor.
- BP: Glacial Acetic Acid
- JP: Glacial Acetic Acid
- PhEur: Acetic Acid, Glacial
- USP: Glacial Acetic Acid
Acidum aceticum glaciale; E260; ethanoic acid; ethylic acid; methane carboxylic acid; vinegar acid.
Chemical Name and CAS Registry Number
- Ethanolic acid [64-19-7]
Empirical Formula and Molecular Weight
- C2H4O2 60.05
- Acidifying agent.
Applications in Pharmaceutical Formulations or Technology
Glacial and diluted acetic acid solutions are widely used as acidifying agents in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations and food preparations. Acetic acid is used in pharmaceutical products as a buffer system when combined with an acetate salt such as sodium acetate. Acetic acid is also claimed to have some antibacterial and antifungal properties.
- Acidity/alkalinity pH = 2.4 (1M aqueous solution); pH = 2.9 (0.1M aqueous solution); pH = 3.4 (0.01M aqueous solution).
- Boiling point 1188C
- Dissociation constant pKa = 4.76
- Flash point 398C (closed cup); 578C (open cup).
- Melting point 178C
- Refractive index n D20 = 1.3718
- Solubility Miscible with ethanol, ether, glycerin, water, and other fixed and volatile oils.
- Specific gravity 1.045
Acetic acid is usually made by one of three routes: acetaldehyde oxidation, involving direct air or oxygen oxidation of liquid acetaldehyde in the presence of manganese acetate, cobalt acetate, or copper acetate; liquid-phase oxidation of butane or naphtha; methanol carbonylation using a variety of techniques.
Acetic acid; artificial vinegar; dilute acetic acid.