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Nutrient requirements during lactation



It is the position of the gafacom that exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and health protection for the first 6 months of life and breastfeeding with complementary foods from 6 months until at least 12 months of age is the ideal feeding pattern for infants.
Breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of otitis media, gastroenteritis, respiratory illness, sudden infant death syndrome

Breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of otitis media, gastroenteritis, respiratory illness, sudden infant death syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, obesity, and hypertension. Breastfeeding is also associated with improved maternal outcomes, including a reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancer, type 2 diabetes, and postpartum depression.

Energy

The average energy costs of lactation are 500 kcal/day in the first 6 months and 400 kcal/day in the second 6 months. Excessive restriction of energy <1 cause="" day="" decreased="" kcal="" may="" milk="" production.="" span="">

Fluids

Daily intake of adequate fluid is encouraged. Current evidence does not support that increasing or decreasing fluid intake by 25 to 50 percent impacts breast milk production

Alcohol

A lactating woman should avoid alcohol consumption, unless it is permitted by her physician.

Caffeine




Lactating women should limit their daily consumption of caffeine to two 5-oz cups of coffee <200 mg="" span="">

Fiber

The 2002 DRI for adequate intake of total fiber is 29 g/day for all age groups during lactation

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Consistent results from randomized control trials have shown that omega-3-fatty acid supplementation (fish oil, cod, liver oil, or docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]- rich oil) taken by pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers can increase omega-3-fatty acid levels in both breast milk and infants’ plasma phospholipids. 

These positive changes in breast milk omega-3-fatty acid compositions, however, do not always show a positive effect on children’s visual acuity and cognitive development at long term follow-up.
Nutrient requirements during lactation Nutrient requirements during lactation Reviewed by gafacom on November 03, 2019 Rating: 5

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