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Inflammation and effects of acute inflammation

Inflammation is a defense mechanism in the body.Inflammation is a defense mechanism in the body. The immune system recognizes damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens, and it begins the healing proces
When something harmful or irritating affects a part of our body, there is a biological response to try to remove it. The signs and symptoms of inflammation can be uncomfortable but are a show that the body is trying to heal itself.

Effects of acute inflammation:

Beneficial effects

 Dilution of toxins: The concentration of chemical and bacterial toxins at the site ofinflammation is reduced by dilution in the exudate and its removal from the site bythe flow of exudates from the venules through the tissue to the lymphatics.
Protective antibodies: Exudation results in the presence of plasma proteinsincluding antibodies at the site of inflammation. Thus, antibodies directed against thecausative organisms will react and promote microbial destruction by phagocytosis orcomplement-mediated cell lysis.
Fibrin formation: This prevents bacterial spread and enhances phagocytosis byleukocytes.¾ Plasma mediator systems provisions: The complement, coagulation, fibrinolytic, &kinin systems are provided to the area of injury by the process of inflammation.
Cell nutrition: The flow of inflammatory exudates brings with it glucose, oxygen andother nutrients to meet the metabolic requirements of the greatly increased numberof cells. It also removes their solute waste products via lymphatic channels.
Promotion of immunity: Micro-organisms and their toxins are carried by theexudates, either free or in phagocytes, along the lymphatics to local lymph nodeswhere they stimulate an immune response with the generation of antibodies andcellular immune mechanisms of defense.

Harmful effects

Tissue destruction: Inflammation may result in tissue necrosis and the tissuenecrosis may, in turn, incite inflammation.

Swelling: The swelling caused by inflammation may have serious mechanicaleffects at certain locations. Examples include acute epiglottitis with interference inbreathing; acute meningitis and encephalitis with effects of increased intracranialpressure.

Inappropriate response: The inflammatory seen in hypersensitivity reactions isinappropriate (i.e. exaggerated).

Acute inflammation may end up in:

Resolution: That is complete restitution of normal structure and function of the tissue,eg. Lobar pneumonia.

Healing by fibrosis (scar formation).

Abscess formation {Surgical law states -Thou shallt(youshould) drain allabscesses.} However, if it is left untouched, it may result in
- Sinus formation - when an abscess cavity makes contact with only one epitheliallining.
- Fistula formation: when an abscess tract connects two epithelial surface.Or very rarely to septicemia orPyemia with subsequent metastatic abscess in heart, kidney and  brain


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