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What is Anaemia, causes, symptoms and prevention

 
Anemia, a pathological condition of low level of haemoglobin
Anaemia is a pathological condition arising as a result of low level of haemoglobin in the body. Reduction of haemoglobin impairs oxygen
transport to the tissues – the basis of the clinical features of anaemia.

Anaemia can be classified according  cause and mechanism of development.

• Four major groups care distinguished:
+ Hemorrhagic anemia – develops due to various forms of bleeding (trauma, excessive menses, bleeding associated with pregnancy and birth giving, and parasitic infestations such as hookworms and schistosomiasis).

+ Haemolytic anemia – due to massive destruction of red blood cells as occurs in malaria and sickle cell disease.


+ Hypoplastic/Aplastic anemia – due to failure of bone marrow to produce sufficient red blood cells. Bone marrow depression can be caused by diseases(autoimmune, viral infection), radiation and chemotherapy and intake of some drugs (anti-inflammatory, antibiotics).

+ Nutritional anemia – due to deficiency of the nutrients needed for the synthesis of red blood cells: iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. Nutritional anemia are
o Iron deficiency anemia
o Folic acid deficiency anemia
o Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia
• Anemia affects all population groups but children aged below five years and pregnant women are the most vulnerable.




Symptoms of Anemia

• Decreased oxygenation –Exertional dyspnea
–Dyspnea at rest
–Fatigue
–Bounding pulses
–Lethargy, confusion

• Decreased volume –Fatigue
–Muscle cramps
–Postural dizziness
–Syncope (transient, self-limited loss of consciousness due to hypotension that is followed by spontaneous recovery.)

Prevention of Anaemia

 Consumption of iron and vitamin rich foods. Iron in foods of animal origin (haem iron) is more easily absorbed compared with iron in foods of plant origin (which is mostly nonhaem iron). Vitamin C enhances absorption of iron while tea and coffee inhibits iron absorption.

Prevention and treatment of anaemia related diseases (malaria, worm infestation, other infections)

• Iron and folic acid supplementation to the most at risk groups – children, pregnant women, sickle cell patients

• Use of micronutrients fortified foods (iron and folic acid included)
What is Anaemia, causes, symptoms and prevention What is Anaemia, causes, symptoms and prevention Reviewed by gafacom on July 05, 2019 Rating: 5

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