Translate

Ampicillin and Cloxacillin

Ampicillin exerts bactericidal action on both gm+ve and gm-ve organisms. Its spectrum includes gm+ve organisms eg, S pneumoniae and other Streptococci, L monocytogenes and gm-ve bacteria eg, M catarrhalis, N gonorrhoea, N meningitidis, E coli, P mirabilis, Salmonella, Shigella, and H influenzae. Ampicillin exerts its action by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell wall. 

Cloxacillin is a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is active against gm+ve organisms including penicillinase-producing strains of Staphylococci. Cloxacillin is highly active against Staph aureus, Strep pyogenes, Strep viridans and Strep pneumoniae. It is also active against penicillinase-producing gonococci and against N meningitidis and H influenzae. Other gm-ve organisms are resistant to cloxacillin as are also methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococci.

gafacom - ampiclox


Indications for Ampicillin + Cloxacillin
Ampicillin has a narrow spectrum of activity and is mainly active againstGram positive bacilli, both gram positive and Gram negative cocci and spirochaetes. Cloxacillin has a similar spectrum of activity to Penicillin and it is also active against penicillinase producing organisms such as staphylococcus aureus.




    1.Respiratory tract infection
    2.Urinary tract infection
    3.Bone and joint infection
    4.Skin infection
    5.Soft tissue infection

About Ampicillin
Semisynthetic Broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic, Aminobenzylpenicillin Antibiotic

Mechanism of Action of Ampicillin
Ampicillin is a bactericidal drug. It is a Beta lactum antibiotic. It binds to the Penicillin binding protein in the cell wall of bacteria and inhibits the enzyme transpeptidase which is responsible for the transpeptidation reaction in peptidoglycan synthesis. It also activates the endogenous enzyme which degrades the peptidoglycan.These results in inhibition of protein synthesis and there by cell wall synthesis. Ampicillin is active against both gram positive and gram negative organism.

Onset of Action for Ampicillin
    30 minutes
Duration of Action for Ampicillin
    6 - 8 hours
Half Life of Ampicillin
    90 minutes

Side Effects of Ampicillin
    1.Nausea
    2.Vomiting
    3.Diarrhoea
    4.Anaphylaxis
    5.Rash
    6.Urticaria
    7.Thrombocytopenia
    8.Nephritis
    9.Seizure.

Contra-indications of Ampicillin
    1.Hypersensitivity to Penicillin

Special Precautions while taking Ampicillin
    1.Mononucleosis
    2.Lymphatic leukaemia
    3.HIV infections
    4.Renal impairment
Pregnancy Related Information
    Use with caution
Old Age Related Information
    Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
    Use with caution

Indications for Ampicillin
    1.Urinary tract infections
    2.Gonorrhoea
    3. Meningitis
    4.SABE
    5. Respiratory tract infections
    6.Septicemia
    7.Soft tissue infections
    8.Otitis media
    9.Sinusitis
    10.Tetanus
    11.Biliary tract nfections
    12.Bronchitis
    13.Salmonellosis
    14.Typhoid
    15.Gastroenteritis
    16.Cholecystitis
    17.Paratyphoid fever

Interactions for Ampicillin
Oral contraceptives: Efficacy reduced, may cause breakthrough bleeding or pregnancy.
    Allopurinol: Increases risk of ampicillin induced skin rash.
    Beta blockers: Oral penicillin like ampicillin may reduce bio-availability of atenolol. Also they may potentiate anaphylatic reactions with penicillin.
    Probenecid: Increases blood levels.
    Erythromycin, Tetracycline: Reduce efficacy.
    Clavulinic Acid: Synergy.
    Food: Interferes with absorption.

Typical Dosage for Ampicillin
 ADULT
Bacterial infections: 250 - 500 mg four times a day depending on the severity of infection
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever: 1 - 2 g four times daily
CHILDREN
Bacterial infections: 125 - 250 mg four times a day depending on the severity of infection

About Cloxacillin
It is a Penicillinase resistant Penicillin, Penicillin derived antibiotic.

Mechanism of Action of Cloxacillin
Cloxacillin is a bactericidal drug. It binds to the Penicillin binding protein in the cell wall of bacteria and inhibits the enzyme transpeptidase which is responsible for the transpeptidation reaction in peptidoglycan synthesis. It also activates the endogenous enzyme which degrades the peptidoglycan.These results in inhibition of protein synthesis and there by cell wall synthesis. In addition to this it is not degraded by penicillinase enzyme and therefore it can be useful against penicillinase producing bacteria also.

Onset of Action for Cloxacillin
 30-60 minutes
Duration of Action for Cloxacillin
 About 6 hours
Half Life of Cloxacillin
30 minutes

Side Effects of Cloxacillin
    1.Anaphylaxis
    2.Rash
    3.Urticaria
    4.Thrombocytopenia
    5.Seizure

Contra-indications of Cloxacillin
Hypersensitive to Cloxacillin or other Penicillins.
Special Precautions while taking Cloxacillin
    1.Heart failure
    2.Uremia
    3.Hypokalemia
    4 Bleeding tendencies
    5.Meningitis
    6.Renal impairment
Pregnancy Related Information
Use with caution

Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Use with caution
Indications for Cloxacillin
    1.Urinary tract infections
    2.Respiratory tract infections
    3.Septicaemia
    4.Osteomyelitis
    5.Endocarditis
    6.Pneumonia
    7.Sinusitis
    8.Bronchiectasis

Interactions for Cloxacillin
Oral contraceptives: Efficacy reduced, may cause breakthrough bleeding or pregnancy.
Atenolol: Bio-availability of atenolol reduced.
Allopurinol: Increases risk of cloxacillin induced skin rash.
Probenecid: Increases blood levels.
Erythromycin & Tetracyclines: Reduce efficacy.
Clavulanic Acid: Synergy.
Food: Interferes with absorption

Typical Dosage for Cloxacillin
 ADULT
    1 - 2 g daily in four divided dose depending on the severity of infection
  CHILDREN
    50 - 100 mg/kg/day in four divided dose depending on the severity of infection
Ampicillin and Cloxacillin Ampicillin and Cloxacillin Reviewed by gafacom on June 12, 2019 Rating: 5

No comments:

Powered by Blogger.