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Parenteral route of drug administration

Parenteral drug products are the dosage forms intended for administration by a route that does not involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (thus, parenteral). Most of the parenteral drug products are injectable dosage forms that …

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Introduction to Radiopharmaceuticals

Radioisotopes, also called radionuclides, are usually artificially produced unstable atoms of a naturally occurring element. These isotopes have the same number of electrons and protons as the naturally occurring element, but dif…

Pharmaceutical tablets dosage forms

The development of a new chemical entity (NCE) requires the testing of its biological activity at various stages of development. For systemically acting drugs, animal studies are carried out at early stages of development using p…

Pharmaceutical solutions dosage form

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of one or more solutes molecularly dispersed in a suitable solvent or a mixture of mutually miscible solvents. A solution composed of only two substances is a binary solution. The components mak…

Processing of Food: Heat and acid killing of microbes

Both heat and organic acids (such as acetic acid) can be used to ensure the safety of acidified vegetable products.   Based upon our current knowledge, acidified vegetable products that have a pH value above 3.3 must receive a he…

Pharmaceutical lotions dosage form

A lotion is a low- to medium-viscosity medicated or non-medicated topical preparation, intended for application to unbroken skin. Lotions are usually applied to external skin with bare hands, a clean cloth, cotton wool, or gauze.…

Pharmaceutical compounding practice

The preparation, mixing, assembling, altering, packaging, and labeling of a drug, drug-delivery device, or device in accordance with a licensed practitioner’s prescription, medication order, or initiative based on the practitione…

Implants: mechanism and types

An implant may be defined as a material that is securely placed (inserted or grafted) into the body. Most of the implants are surgically placed inside the body. A drug-containing implant is usually a sterile, solid dosage form pr…

Pharmaceutical Aromatic water

Aromatic water is also called medicated water, defined in the USP as clear, saturated aqueous solutions of volatile oils(e.g. rose oil, Peppermint oil) or other aromatic or volatile substances e.g. camphor. Aromatic water provide…

Ointments and their bases

Ointments are semisolid preparations that incorporate a lipid or hydrophobic excipient and are intended for external application to the skin or other mucosal membranes. An ointment usually contains less than 20% water and other v…

Compounding of 50 ml Camphor Water BP.

Aromatic waters are saturated solutions of volatile oils (e.g. rose oil, peppermint oil) or other aromatic substances (e.g. camphor). Camphor [C10H16O], is a ketone or a ketotetrahydro-cymene, obtained from Cinnamomum camphora . …

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